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پمپ سانتریفیوژ مگنتی

15 بهمن 1393
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توضیــــحات

امروزه استفاده از پمپ های سانتریفیوژ در صنایع مختلف کاربردهای فراوانی یافته است و بسته به نوع استفاده گونه های متعددی از این پمپ در حال ساخت می باشد.

یکی از موارد چالش برانگیز در طراحی این نوع پمپ ها برای انتقال مواد شیمیایی و سیالات سمی و خطرناک پدیدار می شود. به دلیل وجود آب بند مکانیکی(Mechanical Seal) وماهیت و طراحی استهلاکی آن وجود نشتی سیال و پخش شدن بخارات و گازهای سمی ناشی از آن پس از گذشت مدتی از کارکرد پمپ امری اجتناب ناپذیر می باشد.
با توجه به همین موضوع جهت حل این مسئله طراحان اقدام به ساخت پمپ بدون نشتی جهت انتقال مواد شیمیایی٫ سیالات سمی و خطرناک٫ سیالاتی که خواص خورندگی زیادی دارند نظیر اسیدها و بازها و حلال های شیمیایی و ... نمودند.


در پمپ های سانتریفیوژ مگنتیک این چالش با حذف سیل مکانیکی برطرف شده است. در این نوع پمپ ها انتقال نیروی محرکه الکتروموتور به پروانه از طریق میدان مغناطیسی انجام می پذیرد.
به دلیل حذف سیل مکانیکی در این نوع پمپ ها استهلاک مربوط به آن وهمچنین خطرات ناشی از نشتی بر اثرخورده شدن شیمیایی یا سایش مکانیکی نیز حذف می گردد.


مزایای پمپ سانتریفیوژ با محرک مغناطیسی:

• ایمنی بالا در انتقال مواد شیمیایی خورنده و حلال ها
• قابلیت جابجایی مواد شیمیایی خورنده
• توانایی انتقال سیالات سمی از رنج 0 تا 4
• استفاده از سیال پمپ شونده به عنوان روانکار و خنک کننده
• مصرف بهینه تر انرژی به دلیل حذف تلفات ناشی از سایش مکانیکال سیل
• عدم وجود سایش بین اجزای پمپ
• عدم نیاز به تعویض مکانیکال سیل
• عدم وجود نشتی
• کاهش استهلاک پمپ
• نگهداری آسان
• ساختار ساده
موارد کاربردپمپ مگنتیک درایو:
• مواد شیمیایی سمی
• سیالات قابل اشتعال
• مواد شیمیایی فرار مانند الکل و ...
• مواد خورنده
• سیالات بد بو
• مواد شیمیایی و سیالات مضر برای محیط زیست
• سیالات حاوی مواد رادیو اکتیو
• مواد شیمیایی گرانقیمت
معایب استفاده از پمپ های مگنتی
• بالاتر بودن هزینه اولیه و همچنین هزینه های تعمیر و نگهداری
• نامناسب بودن برای انتقال سیالات ساینده
• نقطه کارکرد آنها می بایست بسیار نزدیک به نقطه بهینه کارکرد (BEP) باشد .
• این گونه پمپ ها نباید بصورت خشک کار کنند .
• توانایی مقاومت در برابر کاویتاسیون را ندارند .
• تمایل به گرم کردن سیال پمپ شونده دارند .
در کاربردهای زیر، می بایست جهت استفاده از پمپ های مگنتی، توجه کافی صورت پذیرد :
• سیالات آلوده وکثیف
• دماهای کاری بالا
• سیالاتی که قابلیت جامد شدن دارند .
• ویسکوزیته سیال ، بالاتر از(cp) 200 سانتی پواز باشد .
• کاویتاسیون در چشمی پروانه که نیروی محوری بالایی را ایجاد می نماید .
• وجود بیش از حد هوای محبوس در سیال

نکته پمپ مگنتی:

بیشتر مشکلات پمپ های بدون آب بند هنگام کارکرد خشک پمپ رخ می دهد زیرا سیال پمپاژ شونده عمل روان کاری و خنک کاری یاتاقان های داخلی را انجام می دهد. در این حالت یاتاقان ها نیز خشک کار می کنند و مواد سخت و شکننده آنها (از جمله سیلیکون کارباید) در چند ثانیه آسیب می بینند. با این وجود موادی همچون کربید گرافیت سیلیکون ممکن است تا مدت مشخصی بدون مشکل در حالت خشک کار کنند از این رو جلوگیری از خشک کار کردن پمپ مگنتی، از هزینه های تعمیر و نگهداری آن می کاهد.

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